Makalah ke 39 :
قال جبريل عليه السلام يا محمد عش ما شئت فئنك ميت, وأحبب من شئت فئنك مفارقة, واعمل ما شئت فئنك مجزى به,
Jibril As berkata, “Ya Muhammad hiduplah sesuka engkau karena sesungguhnya engkau akan meninggal dunia. Dan cintailah orang yang engkau suka karena engkau pasti akan berpisah (disebabkan kematian). Dan beramalah sesuka engkau karena engkau akan di beri pahala atas amal itu.
Makalah ke 40 :
قال النبي صل اله عليه وسلم : ثلاثة نفر يظلهم الله تحت ظل عرشه يوم لاظل الا ظله. المتوضئ فى المكاره, والماشى الى المساجد فى الظلم, ومطعم الجائع.
Tiga golongan yang akan mendapatkan naungan الله di bawah naungan ‘arsy-Nya pada hari dimana tidak ada naungan kecuali naungan-Nya. 1 orang yang berwudhu pada waktu yang sangat berat (dingin bersangatan). 2. orang yang pergi ke masjid dalam kegelapan )untuk mengerjakan shalat berjama’ah). 3. Orang yang memberi makan orang yang kelaparan.
Makalah ke 41 :
قيل لابراهيم عليه السلام, "لأي شيئ اتخذك الله خليلا ؟ قال بثلاثت اشياء : اخترت امر الله تعالى على أمر غيره, وما اهتممت بما تكفل الله لى وما تعيشت وما تغديت الا مع الضيف
Ditanyakan kepada Nabi Ibrahim AS, “Dengan sehingga الله menjadikan engkau sebagai kekasih ?” Maka Ia menjawab, “Dengan tiga hal, Aku memilih melaksanakan perintah الله daripada perintah selainالله. Dan aku tidak bersedih hati atas apa yang telah الله tanggung untukku (dari rizki). Dan tidak sekali-kali aku makan malam atau makan pagi kecuali bersama-sama dengan tamu.
Telah diriwayatkan bahwa Nabi Ibrahim AS berjalan satu mil atau dua mil untuk mencari orang yang mau dijak makan bersamanya.
Makalah ke 42 :
عن بعض الحكماء : ثلاثة اشياء تفرج الغصص 1 ذكر الله تعالي, 2 ولقاء أوليائه, 3 وكلام الحكماء
Diriwayatkan dari sebagian ahli hikmah (orang-orang yang pandai mengobati penyakit hati). Tiga perkara dapat menghilangkan kesusahan. 1 Dzikir kepada الله dengan lafadz apapun seperti banyak membaca kaliamat لااله الاالله dan kalimat لاحولولاقوةالابالله, atau dengan bermunajat kepada-Nya. 2 Bertemu kekasih / Aulia-Nya dari para ulama dan orang-orang saleh. 3 Mendengarkan kalam (nasihat) para hukama’ (orang yang menunjukkan kepada kebajikan dunia dan akhirat).
Makalah ke 43
عن حسن البصرى رضي الله عنه : من لا أدبله لاعلم له, ومن لاصبرله لادين له, ومن لاورع له لازلفى له.
Dari Hasan Al Bashri RA, Barang siapa yang tidak memiliki adab/etika (kepada الله dan kepada makhluk) maka tiadalah ilmu baginya. Barang siapa yang tidak memiliki kesabaran (karena menanggung bala’ dan menanggung disakiti oleh makhluk, dan atas beratnya menjahui maksiyat dan atas melaksanakan kewajiban), maka tiadalah agama baginya. Barang siapa yang tidak wara’ (dari yang haram dan syubhat) maka tidak ada pujian (martabat) baginya di hadapan الله dan tiada kedekatan baginya kepada الله.
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The word 'Islam' is an Arabic word which means 'submission to the will of God'. This word comes from the same root as the Arabic word 'salam', which means 'peace'. As such, the religion of Islam teaches that in order to achieve true peace of mind and surety of heart, one must submit to God and live according to His Divinely revealed Law. The word 'Muslim' means one who submits to the will of God, regardless of their race, nationality or ethnic background. Islam is not a new religion but is the same eternal message revealed through the ages to all of God's prophets and messengers. Muslims believe that all of God's prophets which include Abraham, Noah, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, brought the same message of Pure Monotheism. For this reason, Prophet Muhammad is not considered as the founder of a new religion, as many people mistakenly think, but he was the Final Prophet of Islam. By revealing His final message to Prophet Muhammad, which is an eternal and universal message for all of mankind, God finally fulfilled the covenant that He made with Abraham, who was one of the earliest and greatest Prophets. According to traditional Islamic belief, the religion has existed since time immemorial. Allah, the Almighty God, created Adam (the father of the human progeny) out of a lump of clay and commanded the angels to greet him with a 'Sijda' (prostration in humility). All the angels obeyed the command with the exception of Iblis (the Satan) because he claimed his own superiority over Adam by virtue of his age long devotion to God and creation out of fire.
This resulted in Satan's condemnation and he was eternally banished from the pleasure of Allah. The Satan, however, pleaded with Allah that he and his progeny (the geniis) may be granted an everlasting opportunity to mislead mankind into error and sin in order to test the devotion of Adam and his progeny to God. This request was granted by Allah with the commandment that whosoever followed the Satan's path will forfeit His pleasure and that his abode will be in the fire of hell eternally. Those who follow the commandments of Allah and the path shown by Him would receive eternal blessings and go to the Heaven or Jannat. Thus, there has always been a mighty struggle between the followers of Satan and the believers of Allah ever since the creation of Adam in which the latter have always vanquished the former.
Basic Islamic Beliefs
(a) Tawheed: This means, believe in One, Unique, Incomparable God Who is the Creator, the Ruler and the Sustainer of the universe, and none has the right to be worshipped but He alone,
(b)Belief in the existence of Angels of God as the honoured creatures,
(c) Belief in God's Revealed Books,
(d) Belief in the Prophets and Messengers of God
(e) Belief in the Day of Judgement and Life after Death and
(f) Belief in Predestination - God's complete authority over human destiny.
MUSLIMS OF INDIAIslam first came to India at the Malabar Coast of Kerala through Arab traders as early as 6 AD, the first century of the Islamic calendar. Several centuries later the local population that embraced Islam became a well-knit social and cultural group known as the Moplas.
Within the next 200 years, the first Muslim empire, the Delhi Sultanate, was established in India with its capital in Delhi. This was followed by several other Muslim dynasties like the Khiljis, the Tughlaqs, the Lodis and the Mughals. The period of the Mughals was the golden age of Islam in India. The religion flourished under the Mughal rule and many Indians embraced Islam. Today Muslims constitute about 12% of India's population and are concentrated largely in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Kashmir. Internationally, Islam has a huge following, estimated to be over 600 million or almost one-fifth of the world's population, spread all over the world.
Sufism has been described differently by scholars writing in English but they all consider it as being the inner, esoteric, mystical, or purely spiritual dimension of the religion of Islam.
R. A. Nicholson in The Mystics of Islam (1914) describes Sufism as "Islamic mysticism" and says that Sufism was largely the product of diverse philosophical and spiritual influences, including Christian, Neoplatonic and others.
A.J. Arberry similarly states in Sufism (1950) that Sufism is "the name given to the mysticism of Islam" and "the mystical movement of an uncompromising Monotheism". He says that Sufism in essence derived from the Quran and Prophet Muhammad’s tradition and attempted to view "the movement from within as an aspect of Islam". This approach became generally accepted and was echoed by later scholars.
Victor Danner says in his book The Islamic Tradition (1988), "Sufism is the spiritual Path (tariqah) of Islam and has been identified with it for well over a thousand years...It has been called `Islamic mysticism' by Western scholars because of its resemblance to Christian and other forms of mysticism elsewhere. Unlike Christian mysticism, however, Sufism is a continuous historical and even institutionalised phenomenon in the Muslim world that has had millions of adherents down to the present day. Indeed, if we look over the Muslim world, there is hardly a region that does not have Sufi orders still functioning there".
Sufism or tasawwuf, as it is called in Arabic, is generally understood by scholars and Sufis to be the inner, mystical, or psycho-spiritual dimension of Islam. Today, however, many Muslims and non-Muslims believe that Sufism is outside the sphere of Islam. Nevertheless, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, one of the foremost scholars of Islam, in his article 'The Interior Life in Islam’ contends that Sufism is simply the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of Islam. It is founded on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. This very logical principle is based on a typically succinct saying of Prophet Muhammad: "Whoever knows oneself, knows one's Lord." According to many scholars, it is impossible to relate Sufism to any religion outside of Islam.
The Origin of Sufism
The origins of Sufism can be traced to the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, whose teachings attracted a group of scholars who came to be called "Ahle Suffe", the People of Suffe, from their practice of sitting at the platform of the mosque of the Prophet in Medina. There they engaged themselves in discussions concerning the reality of Being, and in search of the inner path and devoted themselves to spiritual purification and meditation. They were the Companions of the Prophet and were the people of principles practicing certain disciplines and meditations for the sake of purification, the realization of Divine love and the understanding of reality. These individuals were the founders of Sufism. Among the most famous of these individuals were:
Salman Farsi, Ammar Yasser, Balla'al, Abdullah Masoud and Oveyse Gharani. Within a century or two their style of self understanding and discipline were introduced by their students to nations as diverse and widely separated as Persia, India, Indonesia, Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia and North Africa.
Through this process of diffusion, different schools and orders of Sufism gradually emerged from the single original group of Suffe at Medina. Their practices differ from one another in emphasis and doctrine, but all legitimate Sufi schools trace their ultimate origins back to the original group of the Prophet's spiritual disciples.
Sufis represented the inner side of the Islamic creed, which stresses on self-realisation, beautification of the soul through piety, righteousness and universal love for all. The Sufis consider that there is a particular Divine Attribute that dominates the being of every prophet and saint, such that they can be said to be the incarnation of that attribute. All of the Prophets are manifestations of the Divine Unity and Perfection, but Prophet Muhammed is its supreme manifestation. The aim of Sufism is the cultivation of Perfect Beings who are mirrors reflecting the Divine Names and Attributes.
In Sufism, a perfect being is also called a Wali (saint), a word that literally means 'sincere friend'. All who have been prophets have also been saints. The superstructure of Sufism is built upon the concept of teacher, pir or murshid.
To be initiated into the Sufi cult one is required to have implicit faith in his teacher and consider his commands as divine and the path shown by him as the straightest. Sufism had succeeded in inculcating the sentiments of fraternity, equality and equity, coupled with sense of service to humanity, in the followers, irrespective of race, community, caste, creed and colour.
In the earlier stages, it emphasised only on the Love of God but later it also stressed on the need of the development of man with the purification of mind, through prayer and meditation. In India, Sufism helped in maintaining communal harmony and social stability by advocating religious tolerance and by borrowing spiritual techniques and practices from other religions, which were not against the principles of Islam and which were conducive to spiritual attainments. Sufism has adapted extensively from the Vedanta school of the Hindu philosophy.
The musical and ecstatic aspect of Sufism is called Sama. This is a particular kind of devotional dance akin to Kirtana and was introduced by Jalaluddin Rumi, the great and the celebrated founder of the Vedantic type of Sufism. The Sufi, while being spiritually enraptured, gives the attention of his or her heart to the Beloved. With particular movements and often special and rhythmical music, he engages in the selfless remembrance of God. In this state, the Sufi becomes unaware of everything but God. Sufisidentify two types of Sama poetry - first praising God (this is called Hamd), Prophet (this is called Naat) and the Sufi saints (this is called Manqabat) and the second focussing on spiritual emotion or mystical love, ecstatic states and on separation and union. The Sama poetry is mostly sung in the form of Qawwali. Music of Sama is set within metric framework, accompanied by Dholak, Tabla, Sarangi, Harmonium and Sitar.
Some of the rare and valuable documents on Sufism include Adab-us-Sufiyah written in 1021 AD by Abu Abdur Rahman, Mazhar-un-Nur (1779 AD) translated by Syed Nurl Huda, Al Urwah-li-Ahl-il-Khalwah (1339 AD) written by Abul Makarim Ahamad Alaud-Daulah, Tarjumat-ul-Kitab (1649 AD) by Shaikh Muhibullah, Sharhu Awarif-ul-Maarif (1421 AD) by Syed Mohammad Hasan Al Husaini Banda Nawaz Gesu Daraz, Naqd un Nusus, Asrar-ul-Ahkam Sharhu Shariat-ul-Islam, Jawami-ul Kalim andTabaqat-i-Shahjehani.
Important Sufi Orders:
Abul Fazl gave a list of the Sufi orders in India, which comprises dozens of silsilahs. The prominent among these include the Chistiya, Qadriya, Naqsbandiya and the Suhrawardiya. The silsilahs were generally led by the Sufi saints who lived in Khanqahs or hospices along with their disciples. (a) The Chishti Order:
The Chishti Order was introduced in India by Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti (1143-1223 AD) who was one of the most renowned Sufi saints in India. He was born in Sanjar in the province of Sistan in Iran. He was the disciple of the great Sufi saint Khwaja Uthman Harvani, who belonged to the Chishti order. Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti reached India around 1192 AD, shortly after the death and defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. After staying for a short period in Lahore and Delhi, he reached Ajmer in 1195 AD and set up a Khanqah (place of worship) to spread his message of universal love and brotherhood. His simple, pious and ascetic way of life attracted a large number of people who came to seek spiritual guidance from him. After his death on March 11, 1223 AD (6th of Rajab, 633 AH), his devotees started holding a congregation or Urs at Ajmer from the first to the sixth day of the Islamic month of Rajab every year.
The other renowned Sufi saints of this order include Shaikh Qutubuddin Bakhtyar Kaki, Shaikh Hamiduddin Sufi of Nagaur, Hazrat Moinuddin Ajmeri, Shaikh Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakar of Ajodhan (Modern Pubjab), who was popularly known as Hazrat Baba Farid and whose bani and slokas are part of the holy Guru Granth Sahib, Shaikh Jamaluddin Hanowi, Shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia, Shaikh Allauddin Sabir, Shaikh Nasiruddin Chiragh-i-Delhi and Khwaja Gesu Deraz of Gulbarga. Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya founded the Nizamiya sub-silsilah, which spread throughout the country due to the dedicated efforts of his disciples likeShaikhSirajuddin, Shaikh Alaul Haqq, Shaikh Nur Qutb-i-Alam, Syed Ashraf Jahangir, Shaikh Burhanuddin Gharib and Khwaja Gesu Deraz. Amir Khusro, the legendary poet and musician also belonged to this order. The Chisti order is the most widespread among all the Sufi orders in India. The Chisti saints follow the concept of pantheistic monism calledWahdat-ul-wajud, which finds similarities with the Vedanta philosophy. The Chishti order helped in inculcating a sense of duty in the rulers and monarchs to administer justice and equity and to do away with social disorder and religious intolerance.
(b) The Suhrawardi Order:
This order was founded by Shaikh Shahabuddin Umar Suharwardi (d.1234 AD), who is the author of Awarif ul Maarif. It was represented in India by Shaikh Bahauddin Zikiriyya of Multan and Shaikh Jalal Tabrizi of Lakhnauti. This order became popular in Kashmir, Punjab, Sind and parts of Bengal. It reached its acme under Shaikh Ruknuddin (d.1335 AD).
(c) The Qadriya Order:
This ascetic order of Sufism was instituted in 561 AH by Saiyid Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani, popularly known as Pir Dastagir, whose shrine is in Baghdad. It was introduced in India by Shah Niamatullah (d.1430 AD) and was later promoted in an organised manner by Syed Makhdum Muhammad Gilani (d.1517 AD). The Qadriyah Khanqahs are mostly located in Punjab, parts of northern India and extensively in South India. The famous Urdu poets Hasrat Mohani and Allama Iqbal belong to this order.
(d)The Naqshbandi Order:
The Naqshbandi order was popularised in India through the efforts of Khwaja Baqi Billah (d.1642 AD), who came to India during the reign of Emperor Akbar. His Khalifah or deputy was Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi, commonly known as Mujaddid-e-Alf Sani. Shah Waliullaj of Delhi, Syed Ahmed of Rae Bareilly and Shah Ghulam Ali were some of the great Sufis of this order. Famous Sufi poets of this order are Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janan and Mir Dard.
(e) The Nimatullahi Sufi Order:
This Sufi order owes its origin to Shah Nimatullah Wali, one of the great Sufi masters of Iran, who founded the order at the end of the 14th century AD. The spiritual method of the Nimatullahi order is based on invocation and remembrance of God (zikr), reflection (fikr), self-examination (mohasaba), meditation (moraqaba) and litany (werd). After Shah Nimatullah, the masters of the Nimatullahi order resided in India until the end of the 18th century AD (12th century AH), after which it was shifted back to Iran with the arrival of Sayyed Ma'Sum 'Ali Shah Dakkani to Iran in 1775 AD (1190 AH).
(f) The Shattari Order:
This order was introduced in India by Shah Abdullah Shattari (d.1485 AD) and became popular in Malwa, Jaunpur and Bengal. The eminent Sufi saints of this order include Shaikh Muhammad Alas Qadin of Bengal, Shaikh Hafiz of Jaunpur and Shaikh Muhammad Ghauth of Gwalior. The famous musician Tansen belonged to this order.